Atomic Bomb Chronology: 1980-1999

1980.6.3 U.S.A. A 46-cent computer chip fails, causing the mistaken detection of a Soviet missile attack by the NORAD system. About 100 B-52 bombers were readied for take off along with the President's airborne command post before the error is detected.
1980.9.20 U.S.A. A technician dropping a wrench and breaking a fuel tank causes an explosion in the silo of a Titan II Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile. The explosion blows off the 740-ton door and sends the re-entry vehicle with its 9-megaton warhead 600 feet into the air, killing one man and injuring 21 others.
1981.4.9 U.S.A. The USS George Washington, a submarine carrying 160 nuclear warheads, collides with a Japanese freighter in the East China Sea.
1981.8.9 U.S.A. Resumed production of neutron bomb by President Ronald Reagan. Triad of B1 bomber, MX missle, Trident sub restored.
1981.11.2 U.S.A. An American Poseidon nuclear missile being winched from the submarine support ship USS Holland falls seventeen feet when the winch runs free. The automatic brakes on the winch bring it to rest just above the submarine's hull.
1982.4.2 Falkland island battle: Accuracy rate of Sidewinder missile is 86%.
1982.7.23 U.S.A. Additional production of neutron bombs by President R.Reagan. 2200 bombs including those for NATO army.
1983.3.23 U.S.A. Strategic Defense Initiative (nicknamed "Star Wars") by President R. Reagan. Satellite system counteracting warheads of Soviet ICBM. Development of laser weapons.
1984.3.21 U.S.A. U.S.S.R. The aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk collides with a Soviet attack submarine. The submarine is carrying nuclear armed torpedoes and the carrier is armed with several dozen nuclear weapons.
1986.4.26 U.S.S.R. Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. Nuclear power surge caused a steam explosion. Graphite in reactor core caught fire and burned for day. Fuel remaining in reactor core melted into basement. It was first officially announced on April 30 (FOUR days later). The brief announcement ended with words "life in the area of accident is returning to normal".
1986.9 U.S.A. Radioactive pollution from nuclear weapon plant exposed in Report of the Board of Audit.
1986.10.3 U.S.S.R. A fire breaks out aboard a Soviet Yankee Class nuclear submarine in the Atlantic about 400 miles east of Bermuda. The submarine sinks three days later while under tow.
1986.10 U.S.A. Past human experiments on radioactivity effect exposed:
1987.12 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, INF: Bilateral ratified treaty between the US and USSR, which requires parties to eliminate all intermediate-range missiles (IRMs), shorter-range missiles (SRMs), and associated equipment. Compliance is monitored using national technical means, five types of on-site inspection, and cooperative measures.
1989.1 U.S.A. Shutdown of unneeded nuclear weapon plants by President R.Reagan, including Fernald (OH), Rocky Flats (CO), Savannah River (SC), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (ID), Oak Ridge (TN) and Others. Reactor shutdowns at Hanford: DR - December 1964, H - April 1965, F - June 1965, D - June 1967, B - February 1968, C - April 1969, KW - February 1970, KE - January 1971, N - initial safety modifications shutdown January 1987 - "cold stand by" February 1988.
1989.4.7 U.S.S.R. The Soviet nuclear submarine Komsomolets sinks 300 miles off Norway, killing 42 crewmen.
1989.11.19 Germany Fall of East Berlin Wall.
1989 U.S.A. Stops deploying nuclear depth bombs and ship-to-air warheads.
1991.1 U.S.A. SDI project renewed by President George Bush. 1000 missile-navigation satellites.
1991.1.17 Gulf war: President G.Bush sent 425,000 American troops to Iraq (Desert Storm). Pollution by depleted uranium from armor piercing shells.
1991.7 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty: Bilateral agreement between the US and USSR, which if ratified, would set a ceiling of 1,600 strategic nuclear delivery vehicles and 6,000 "accountable" warheads for each country. START cuts U.S. long-range nuclear warheads by 15%, Soviet by 25%. But both sides are permitted to continue modernization plans, and the number of nuclear warheads carried on some categories of strategic weapons is projected to actually increase by the late 1990s under the treaty.
1991.9.27 U.S.S.R. A missile misfires on a Soviet Typhoon class nuclear-powered submarine carrying several nuclear weapons.
1991.9.27 U.S.A. Unilateral cut of tactical nuclear weapons by President G.Bush. U.S.S.R. President Mikhail Gorbachev, responded with a plan of similar reduction of nuclear weapon number.
1991.12 U.S.S.R. U.S.S.R. breaks up into independent states. Cold war ends.
1992.1.29 U.S.A. Indefinite postponement of production of nuclear warheads for Trident II, W-88, by President G. Bush.
1992.5 Lisbon protocol: Confirmation by U.S.A. and 4 former-Soviet republics of START-I.
1993.1 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty II (START II): Bilateral agreement between the US and Russia which if ratified, would cut one-half of strategic nuclear weapons.
1993.3.20 Russia U.S.A. A Russian Delta III class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine collides with the USS Grayling, a nuclear-powered attack submarine in the Barent Sea.
1993.3 South Africa Manufacturing and dismantling of 6 nuclear bombs confirmed since 1989.
1993.8.2 U.S.A. Exhibition of Enola Gay decided by President William J. Clinton, at Smithonian museum.
1993.8 old U.S.S.R. Damage in victims of nuclear tests exposed: 496 nuclear tests in Semipalatinsk neglected radiation effect on neighboring inhabitants' health.
1993.9.11 Ukraine Nuclear warhead accident causes rapid increase in radioactivity in Pervomaisk arsenal. Due to too densely storing of nuclear warheads.
1993.9.22 U.S.A. Underground explosion test: By usual explosive for database of earthquake wave.
1993.10.19 Ukraine Independence: 130 SS-19 missiles, 46 SS-24 missiles, and 2 strategic bomber regiments taken over from Russia.
1993.11 Russia Two nuclear warheads stolen. By drunkard engineers. Found later at car park.
1993.12 U.S.A. Allows free access to information relating to nuclear weapons, total of 1051 nuclear tests including 204 secret small scale (below 20kt) underground tests; radiation experiments on living persons: 600 persons, 800 times.
1994.1 U.S.A. Russia Ukraine Triad nuclear warhead dismantling agreement. Ukraine gets nuclear fuel for power generation from Russia in return for warheads; U.S.A. buys from Russia enriched uranium of dismantled warheads.
1995.19 U.S.A. Smithsonian museum rebellion: Concerning exhibition on atomic bomb in relation to Enola Gay. Reduced estimate of number of American soldiers killed and wounded in the hypothetical invasion of Japan without use of Little Boy and Fat Man from one million to 63 thousands.
1995.1.30 U.S.A. Cancellation of atomic bomb exhibition at Smithsonian museum. Only Enola Gay was exhibited, due to opposition by veteran's organization. "Myth of Atomic Bomb" dies hard.
1995.8.3 U.S.A. Nuclear tests without nuclear explosion proposed in Jason Report.
1995.8.11 U.S.A. Total ban of nuclear test proposed by President W. Clinton.
1995.9.2 France Nuclear tests in Mururoa atoll under commander Gen. Paul Verice. The blast was designed to test software so France can conduct future tests in computers, without actual detonations. In a tunnel bored 1,800 to 3,000 feet below the surface. The blast equaled less than 20,000 tons of TNT. In all, France conducted 204 nuclear tests, 17 of them in the 1960s in the Sahara Desert and the remainder in French Polynesia.
1995.10.12 U.S.A. Nuclear warhead stockpile totals 9000: 7000 in U.S.A.; 480 in Europe; 1500 with submarines.
1995.12.8 Japan Accident in plutonium high speed breeder reactor "Monju". The only operating plutonium breeder reactor in the world. Leaking of cooling liquid sodium.
1995.12 Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-free Zone (SEANWFZ) Treaty: Signed by ASEAN Countries. Brunei Darussalam,Cambodia,Indonesia,Laos,Malaysia,Myanmar,Philippines,Singapore,Thailand and Vietnam.
1996.1.5 Ukraine Blasting of strategic missile silo, observed by Ministry of defense of U.S.A. and Russia.
1996.1.19 France A French Mirage 2000-N nuclear bomber crashes in southern France after flying into a flock of birds. French officials state that there were no nuclear missiles on board when the plane went down.
1996.1.27 France The final nuclear test: Warhead for nuclear submarine.
1996.2.10 Russia [Russia] Smuggling of plutonium confirmed: 363 g high density plutonium found and seized at Munich airport in June, 1994.
1996.4.20 Atomic energy summit in Russia.
1996.6.8 China Nuclear test.
1996.7.8 Advisory opinions of the International Court of Justice on the Legal Status of Nuclear Weapons: Any nuclear weapon threat or use is illegal. The question to the IJC was presented by the General Assembly of United Nations on 15 December 1994. World Court Project has been promoted by 3 NGO's including IPPNW since 1992.
1996.7.29 China The final nuclear test: Lop Nor. A total of 42 nuclear tests since 1990. Nuclear explosion tests on the earth altogether: 1452.
1996.8.14 Australia Report of Canberra Commission: 17 experts from 12 states, including Joseph Rotblat, Robert MacNamara. Identification of concrete and realistic steps for achieving a nuclear-weapon-free world including the development and establishment of necessary verification and control mechanisms and new international legal obligation.
1996.9.10 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: Multilateral agreement signed by the US, Russia, UK, and 90 non-nuclear-weapon states would ban any and all nuclear tests, big or small, above and below the Earth's surface. It established a worldwide monitoring system--including 170 seismic stations--to check air, water and soil for signals that someone set off a nuclear explosion. Not effective because nuclear state India refused to sign the treaty.
1996.11.15 France A nuclear weapon plant shut down.
1996.12.4 U.S.A. Joint statement by General Goodpaster and General Lee Butler: Reduce of nuclear weapons arsenals, due to declining usefulness and continuing risks. (Washington, D. C.)
1996.12.5 Statement for abolition of nuclear weapons by commanders of many countries.
1996.12.6 A-Bomb Dome Registered as World Heritage. Hiroshima's Pledge Becomes Humanity's Pledge. By the UNESCO World Heritage Committee meeting in Merida, Mexico.
1997.2.25 Russia A supercomputer (IBM) for nuclear test simulation purchased via European agency.7 million dollars.
1997.3.11 Japan An Accidental explosion at a nuclear waste recycling factory. The intentional hiding exposed.
1997.4.11 Japan A heavy water reactor accident.11 times for 2 years, not publicized.
1997.5.27 Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-free Zone Treaty(Bankok Treaty) enters into force. The entire south hemisphere is nuclear weapon-free.
1997.6.4 U.S.A. Facilities (Nevada) for subcritical nuclear weapon experiment shown to media. 1.5 kg plutonium for warhead is pressed with 80Gpa, 170Gpa,230Gpa by 75 kg TNT.
1997.7.2 U.S.A. subcritical nuclear weapon experiment: Nevada
1997.8.14 U.S.A. Reduction by 300 nuclear weapons possible. Statement by Thomas Graham, the Special Representative of the US President for Arms Control.
1997.8.21 U.S.A. Improved nuclear warheads deployed. B61-11.Length 3.6m, weight 500kg, Loadable by B-2 and F-16 aircraft.
1997.11.13 Russia subcritical nuclear weapon experiments in 1996 and 1997 reported.
1997.12.9 Japan Japanese plutonium stockpile, 53.789t.
1998. 5.11 India Nuclear tests in Pokaran, Rajasthan. Two atomic bombs and one hydrogen bomb. Insisting Pakistan threat and protesting against the present NPT and CTBT regime.
1998. 5.13 India Another nuclear test. Obtaining data for subcritical nuclear weapon experiment.
1998. 5.28 Pakistan Nuclear tests in Baluchistan. 5 tests. Insisting Indian nuclear threat.
1998. 5.30 Pakistan Additional tests for missile war head.
1998.12.8 Russia subcritical nuclear weapon experiments for checking quality of plutonium of nuclear weapons. Further 5 tests from August to December, 1998.
1998.12.11 U.S.A. subcritical nuclear weapon experiment: Nevada. Feb. 9, 1999 6th test. Sept. 30,1999 7th test.
1999.1.8 U.S.A. A suspicion of leakage of information of Trident missile nuclear warhead from Los Alamos to People's Republic of China. Later a Chinese scientist (US citizen) was arrested.
1999.1.24 U.S.A. Production of tritium for nuclear weapons in Tennessee, stated by the Department of Energy.
1999.5.14 Netherlands The Hague Agenda for Peace and Justice for the 21th century, presented by Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of the UN, Dutch Prime Minister Wim Kok, Prime Minister Sheikh Hasani of Bangladesh and Queen Noor of Jordan. The Hague Appeal agenda demands ten fundamental principles for a just world order: 1. Every Parliament should adopt a resolution prohibiting their government from going to war, like the Japanese article number nine. 6. Negotiations for a Convention Eliminating Nuclear Weapons should begin immediately. 9. Peace education should be compulsory in every school in the world.
1999.7.15 China Technical accomplishment of making neutron weapons is stated.
1999.9.30 Japan CRITICALITY ACCIDENT AT TOKAI URANIUM CONVERSION FACILITY, a commercial nuclear fuel plant (JCO, Ltd.) where enriched UF6 gas is converted into UO2 powder for further processing. When total of 16.1 kg of enriched urnium235 was filled in a basin surrounded by water coolant, the criticality occurred. Three workers near the basin was irradiated by neutrons. Amount of blood 24Na determined later indicated that irradiation was about 17Sv. A worker the most heavily irradiated died 83 days later.
1999.10.8 Japan Central Asia Nuclear Free Zone Treaty meeting in Sapporo. Basically agreed by Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan.
1999.10.13 U.S.A. The Senate rejected the ratification of CTBT.
1999.11.9 United Nations A Resolution, Towards a nuclear-weapon-free world: the need for a new agenda, was approved by a recorded vote of 90 in favor to 13 against, with 37 abstentions. In favor: Algeria, Angola, Austria, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Court de Divoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Libya, Liechtenstein, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Syria, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Venezuela, VietNam, Yemen, Zambia.
Against: Bulgaria, Estonia, France, Hungary, India, Israel, Monaco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, United States.
Abstain: Andorra, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mauritius, Myanmar, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Ukraine, Uzbekistan.
1999.11.10 U.S.A. 8th subcritical nuclear weapon experiment.

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