||A 46-cent computer chip fails, causing
the mistaken detection of a Soviet missile attack by the NORAD system.
About 100 B-52 bombers were readied for take off along with the
President's airborne command post before the error is detected.
||A technician dropping a wrench and
breaking a fuel tank causes an explosion in the silo of a Titan II
Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile. The explosion blows off the
740-ton door and sends the re-entry vehicle with its 9-megaton warhead
600 feet into the air, killing one man and injuring 21 others.
||The USS George Washington, a submarine
carrying 160 nuclear warheads, collides with a Japanese freighter in
the East China Sea.
||Resumed production of neutron
bomb by President Ronald Reagan. Triad of B1 bomber, MX missle, Trident
||An American Poseidon nuclear missile
being winched from the submarine support ship USS Holland falls
seventeen feet when the winch runs free. The automatic brakes on the
winch bring it to rest just above the submarine's hull.
||Falkland island battle: Accuracy rate of
Sidewinder missile is 86%.
||Additional production of neutron bombs
by President R.Reagan. 2200 bombs including those for NATO army.
||Strategic Defense Initiative
(nicknamed "Star Wars") by President R. Reagan. Satellite system
warheads of Soviet ICBM. Development of laser weapons.
||The aircraft carrier USS Kitty
Hawk collides with a Soviet attack submarine. The submarine is carrying
nuclear armed torpedoes and the carrier is armed with several dozen
||Chernobyl nuclear power plant
disaster. Nuclear power surge caused a steam explosion. Graphite in
reactor core caught fire and burned for day. Fuel remaining in reactor
core melted into basement. It was first officially announced on April
30 (FOUR days later). The brief announcement ended with words "life in
the area of accident is returning to normal".
||Radioactive pollution from nuclear
weapon plant exposed in Report of the Board of Audit.
||A fire breaks out aboard a Soviet
Yankee Class nuclear submarine in the Atlantic about 400 miles east of
Bermuda. The submarine sinks three days later while under tow.
||Past human experiments on
radioactivity effect exposed:
||Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, INF:
Bilateral ratified treaty between the US and USSR, which requires
parties to eliminate all intermediate-range missiles (IRMs),
shorter-range missiles (SRMs), and associated equipment. Compliance is
monitored using national technical means, five types of on-site
inspection, and cooperative measures.
||Shutdown of unneeded nuclear weapon
plants by President R.Reagan, including Fernald (OH), Rocky Flats (CO),
Savannah River (SC), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (ID), Oak
Ridge (TN) and Others. Reactor shutdowns at Hanford: DR - December
H - April 1965, F - June 1965, D - June 1967, B - February 1968, C -
April 1969, KW - February 1970, KE - January 1971, N - initial safety
modifications shutdown January 1987 - "cold stand by" February 1988.
||The Soviet nuclear submarine
Komsomolets sinks 300 miles off Norway, killing 42 crewmen.
||Fall of East Berlin Wall.
||Stops deploying nuclear depth
bombs and ship-to-air warheads.
||SDI project renewed by President
George Bush. 1000 missile-navigation satellites.
||Gulf war: President G.Bush sent 425,000 American
troops to Iraq (Desert Storm). Pollution by depleted uranium from armor
||Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty: Bilateral
agreement between the US and USSR, which if ratified, would set a
ceiling of 1,600 strategic nuclear delivery vehicles and 6,000
warheads for each country. START cuts U.S. long-range nuclear warheads
by 15%, Soviet by 25%. But both sides are permitted to continue
plans, and the number of nuclear warheads carried on some categories of
strategic weapons is projected to actually increase by the late 1990s
under the treaty.
||A missile misfires on a Soviet
Typhoon class nuclear-powered submarine carrying several nuclear
||Unilateral cut of tactical nuclear
weapons by President G.Bush. U.S.S.R. President Mikhail Gorbachev,
responded with a plan of similar reduction of nuclear weapon number.
||U.S.S.R. breaks up into independent
states. Cold war ends.
||Indefinite postponement of production
of nuclear warheads for Trident II, W-88, by President G. Bush.
||Lisbon protocol: Confirmation by U.S.A. and 4
former-Soviet republics of START-I.
||Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty II (START II):
Bilateral agreement between the US and Russia which if ratified, would
cut one-half of strategic nuclear weapons.
||A Russian Delta III class
nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine collides with the USS
a nuclear-powered attack submarine in the Barent Sea.
||Manufacturing and dismantling of 6
nuclear bombs confirmed since 1989.
||Exhibition of Enola Gay decided by
President William J. Clinton, at Smithonian museum.
||Damage in victims of
nuclear tests exposed: 496 nuclear tests in Semipalatinsk neglected
radiation effect on neighboring inhabitants' health.
||Nuclear warhead accident causes rapid
increase in radioactivity in Pervomaisk arsenal. Due to too densely
storing of nuclear warheads.
||Underground explosion test: By usual
explosive for database of earthquake wave.
||Independence: 130 SS-19 missiles, 46
SS-24 missiles, and 2 strategic bomber regiments taken over from
||Two nuclear warheads stolen. By drunkard
engineers. Found later at car park.
||Allows free access to information
relating to nuclear weapons, total of 1051 nuclear tests including 204
secret small scale (below 20kt) underground tests; radiation
experiments on living persons: 600 persons, 800 times.
||U.S.A. Russia Ukraine
||Triad nuclear warhead
dismantling agreement. Ukraine gets nuclear fuel for power generation
from Russia in return for warheads; U.S.A. buys from Russia enriched
uranium of dismantled warheads.
||Smithsonian museum rebellion:
Concerning exhibition on atomic bomb in relation to Enola Gay. Reduced
estimate of number of American soldiers killed and wounded in the
invasion of Japan without use of Little Boy and Fat Man from one
to 63 thousands.
||Cancellation of atomic bomb exhibition
at Smithsonian museum. Only Enola Gay was exhibited, due to opposition
by veteran's organization. "Myth of Atomic Bomb" dies hard.
||Nuclear tests without nuclear
explosion proposed in Jason Report.
||Total ban of nuclear test proposed by
President W. Clinton.
||Nuclear tests in Mururoa atoll under
commander Gen. Paul Verice. The blast was designed to test software so
France can conduct future tests in computers, without actual
detonations. In a tunnel bored 1,800 to 3,000 feet below the surface.
The blast equaled less than 20,000 tons of TNT. In all, France
conducted 204 nuclear tests, 17 of them in the 1960s in the Sahara
Desert and the remainder in French Polynesia.
||Nuclear warhead stockpile totals 9000:
7000 in U.S.A.; 480 in Europe; 1500 with submarines.
||Accident in plutonium high speed
breeder reactor "Monju". The only operating plutonium breeder reactor
in the world. Leaking of cooling liquid sodium.
||Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-free Zone (SEANWFZ)
Treaty: Signed by ASEAN Countries. Brunei
||Blasting of strategic missile silo,
observed by Ministry of defense of U.S.A. and Russia.
||A French Mirage 2000-N nuclear bomber
crashes in southern France after flying into a flock of birds. French
officials state that there were no nuclear missiles on board when the
plane went down.
||The final nuclear test: Warhead
for nuclear submarine.
||[Russia] Smuggling of plutonium confirmed: 363 g
high density plutonium found and seized at Munich airport in June, 1994.
||Atomic energy summit in Russia.
||Advisory opinions of the International Court of
Justice on the Legal Status of Nuclear Weapons: Any nuclear weapon
threat or use is illegal. The question to the IJC was presented by the
General Assembly of United Nations on 15 December 1994. World Court
has been promoted by 3 NGO's including IPPNW since 1992.
||The final nuclear test: Lop Nor.
A total of 42 nuclear tests since 1990. Nuclear explosion tests on
the earth altogether: 1452.
||Report of Canberra Commission: 17
experts from 12 states, including Joseph Rotblat, Robert MacNamara.
Identification of concrete and realistic steps for achieving a
nuclear-weapon-free world including the development and establishment
of necessary verification and control mechanisms and new international
||Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: Multilateral
agreement signed by the US, Russia, UK, and 90 non-nuclear-weapon
states would ban any and all nuclear tests, big or small, above and
below the Earth's surface. It established a worldwide monitoring
system--including 170 seismic stations--to check air, water and soil
for signals that someone set off a nuclear explosion. Not effective
because nuclear state India refused to sign the treaty.
||A nuclear weapon plant shut down.
||Joint statement by General Goodpaster
and General Lee Butler: Reduce of nuclear weapons arsenals, due to
declining usefulness and continuing risks. (Washington, D. C.)
||Statement for abolition of nuclear weapons by
commanders of many countries.
||A-Bomb Dome Registered as World Heritage.
Hiroshima's Pledge Becomes Humanity's Pledge. By the UNESCO World
Heritage Committee meeting in Merida, Mexico.
||A supercomputer (IBM) for nuclear test
simulation purchased via European agency.7 million dollars.
||An Accidental explosion at a nuclear waste
recycling factory. The intentional hiding exposed.
||A heavy water reactor accident.11 times
for 2 years, not publicized.
||Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-free Zone
Treaty(Bankok Treaty) enters into force. The entire south hemisphere
is nuclear weapon-free.
||Facilities (Nevada) for subcritical
nuclear weapon experiment shown to media. 1.5 kg plutonium for warhead
is pressed with 80Gpa, 170Gpa,230Gpa by 75 kg TNT.
||subcritical nuclear weapon experiment:
||Reduction by 300 nuclear weapons possible.
Statement by Thomas Graham, the Special Representative of the US
President for Arms Control.
||Improved nuclear warheads deployed.
B61-11.Length 3.6m, weight 500kg, Loadable by B-2 and F-16 aircraft.
||subcritical nuclear weapon experiments in
1996 and 1997 reported.
||Japanese plutonium stockpile, 53.789t.
||Nuclear tests in Pokaran, Rajasthan. Two
atomic bombs and one hydrogen bomb. Insisting Pakistan threat and
protesting against the present NPT and CTBT regime.
||Another nuclear test. Obtaining data for
subcritical nuclear weapon experiment.
||Nuclear tests in Baluchistan. 5 tests.
Insisting Indian nuclear threat.
||Additional tests for missile war head.
||subcritical nuclear weapon experiments
for checking quality of plutonium of nuclear weapons. Further 5 tests
from August to December, 1998.
||subcritical nuclear weapon experiment:
Nevada. Feb. 9, 1999 6th test. Sept. 30,1999 7th test.
||A suspicion of leakage of information of
Trident missile nuclear warhead from Los Alamos to People's Republic of
China. Later a Chinese scientist (US citizen) was arrested.
||Production of tritium for nuclear weapons
in Tennessee, stated by the Department of Energy.
||The Hague Agenda for Peace and
Justice for the 21th century, presented by Kofi Annan,
Secretary-General of the UN, Dutch Prime Minister Wim Kok, Prime
Minister Sheikh Hasani of Bangladesh and Queen Noor of Jordan. The
Hague Appeal agenda demands ten fundamental principles for a just world
order: 1. Every Parliament should adopt a resolution prohibiting their
government from going to war, like the Japanese article number nine. 6.
Negotiations for a Convention Eliminating Nuclear Weapons should begin
immediately. 9. Peace education should be
compulsory in every school in the world.
||Technical accomplishment of making neutron
weapons is stated.
||CRITICALITY ACCIDENT AT TOKAI URANIUM
CONVERSION FACILITY, a commercial nuclear fuel plant (JCO, Ltd.)
where enriched UF6 gas is converted into UO2 powder for further
processing. When total of 16.1 kg of enriched urnium235 was filled in a
basin surrounded by water coolant, the criticality occurred. Three
workers near the basin was irradiated by neutrons. Amount of blood 24Na
determined later indicated that irradiation was about 17Sv. A worker
the most heavily irradiated died 83 days later.
||Central Asia Nuclear Free Zone Treaty
meeting in Sapporo. Basically agreed by Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and
||The Senate rejected the ratification of
||A Resolution, Towards a
nuclear-weapon-free world: the need for a new agenda, was approved by a
recorded vote of
90 in favor to 13 against, with 37 abstentions. In favor: Algeria,
Angola, Austria, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,
Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso,
Cambodia, Cape Verde, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Court de Divoire,
Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,
Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Jamaica,
Kenya, Kuwait, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Libya,
Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco,
Namibia, Nepal, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Panama, Papua
Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, San Marino, Saudi Arabia,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka,
Swaziland, Sweden, Syria, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,
United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Venezuela,
Against: Bulgaria, Estonia, France, Hungary, India, Israel, Monaco,
Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, United
Abstain: Andorra, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Belgium,
Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Finland, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan,
Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mauritius, Myanmar, Netherlands, Norway,
Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spain, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Ukraine,
||8th subcritical nuclear weapon