Atomic Bomb Chronology: 1781-1929

1781 United Kingdom Planet Uranus; discovery by William Herschel. (see uranium)
1789 Germany Element Uranium discovered by Martin Heinrich Klaproth.(Utilized as a glass-coloring agent.)
1828 Sweden Element Thorium discovered by Jons Jakob Berzlius.@Named from Norse god of thunder, "Thor". Utilized as a mantle for gas lights.
1846.6 Fracne Planet Neptune discovered by J.Galle. (see neptunium)
1873 United Kingdom "Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism "published by James Clerk Maxwell, of Cavendish Laboratory.
1885 Switzerland Balmer series in@spectrum of the hydrogen atom@and the Balmer equation on spectrum series by Johann Jakob Balmer.
1890 Sweden Rydberg equation by Johannes Robert Rydberg. (Rydberg@constant used in spectroscopy)
1895.11.8 Germany X-ray discovered by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen. (Received 1901 Nobel prize.)
1896.3.1 France Radioactivity discovered by Henri Becquerel due to darkening of a photographic dry plate by a uranium compound. Named "radioactivity"by Marie Curie. (Received 1903 Nobel prize.)
1897 Netherlands Zeeman effect discovered by Pieter Zeeman. Separation of spectral lines in magnetic field. (Received 1902 Nobel prize.)
1897 United Kingdom Electron's existence verified by Joseph John Thomson at Cavendish laboratory. (Received 1906 Nobel prize.)
1898 Canada Alpha-ray and beta-ray discovered by Ernest Rutherford(Lord Nelson). They were distinguished by different transmissibility.
1898.12.26 France Radium and polonium discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie. Purified from uranium ore, named for Poland. (Received 1903 Nobel prize.) Used prize money to found the Radium Research Laboratory.
1900.10.19 Germany Quantum theory of radiation presented by Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck.
1900 France Gamma-ray discovered by P.V.Villard.
1900 France Beta-ray is cathode ray, proved by Henri Becquerel.
1900 Canada Radioactive gas (called emanation) from thorium discovered by Ernest Rutherford.
1900 France Radioactive gas from radium discovered by Marie Curie.
1900 France Radioactive gas from actinium.
1903 Canada Theory of atomic decay and radioactivity presented by Ernest Rutherford and Frederic Soddy. Transition of thorium to radon gas. Half life of radioactivity. (Received 1908 Nobel prize.)
1903 Japan Saturn model of atom presented by Hantarou Nagaoka. It does not solve the problem of the stability of electron orbit. Nagaoka met with Rutherford in 1911 but failed to get any his comments about the issue.
1903.12.17 U.S.A. The first engine-powered airplane flown by Wright brothers in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
1905 Germany Special theory of relativity presented by Albert Einstein. Quantum mechanism of photoelectric effect and photon. mass energy,d2. (Received 1921 Nobel prize.)
1905 Canada Uniformity of alpha-ray mass discovered by Otto Hahn, a student of Rutherford at McGill University, Montreal
1906 Canada Scattering of alpha-ray;discovery by Ernest Rutherford. Refraction of alpha-ray by mica indicating the existence of high electric field within atom. (McGill University)
1908 United Kingdom Geiger Counter; developed by Hans Geiger. Device for detecting radioactivity. Geiger was a student of Rutherford at Manchester University.
1908 United Kingdom Alpha-ray shown to be equivalent to helium nucleus by Ernest Rutherford in the commemorative lecture of Nobel prize.
1909 United Kingdom Detection of alpha-ray scattering by Ernest Marsden, a student of Rutherford. Reflection of alpha-particle by 90 degree during passage through gold foil.
1911.3.7 United Kingdom Atomic nucleus proposed by Ernest Rutherford, not referring to the Saturn model of Hantaro Nagaoka.
1911.10.30 The First Solvay Meeting with Einstein,Plank,Lorenz,Poincare,Curie,Langevin,Rutherford. On radioactivity and quantum theory.
1911 United Kingdom Cloud chamber developed by Charles Thompson Rees Wilson. Detection of flight course of ionic nucleus by cloud developed in supersaturated mixed gas of argon and ethanol. At Cavendish Laboratory.(Received 1927 Nobel prize.)
1911 Austria Cosmic rays verified by Victor Francis Hess measuring in a balloon 5 km high. (Received 1936 Nobel prize)
1912 United Kingdom Radiothorium purified from barium compound by Otto Hahn. Later identified as isotope of thorium.
1912.11 Germany Diffraction of X rays found by Max Theodore Felixvon Laue. Irradiation of crystallized zinc sulphate proving that x ray is an electromagnetic wave. (Received 1914 Nobel prize.)
1913.3.6 Denmark Planetary model of atomic structure presented by Niels Hendrik David Bohr. Developed out of quantum theory. (Received 1922Nobel prize.)
1913 United Kingdom Isotope concept presented by Frederick Soddy, a student of Rutherford. (Received 1922 Nobel prize.)
1913 United Kingdom Separation of neon isotope by Francis Aston utilizing a gaseous diffusion method by repeating diffusion through china clay partition thousands times.
1913 United Kingdom The theory of X ray diffraction presented by William Henry and William Lawrence Bragg, father and son. (Received 1915 Nobel prize.)
1913.11 United Kingdom Correspondence of x-ray spectrum and atomic number discovered by Henry Gwgn Jeffreys Moseley. Died 1915 in battle in Turkey.
1914 United Kingdom H.G. Wells published "The World Set Free", in which he wrote about the creation of atomic weapons, their use and impact on the political world. The novel is significant due to its political and technical accuracy. It is one of the first written predictions of atomic weapons.
1914.6.28 The First World War triggered by assassination of Austrian Crown Prince by a Serbian youth in Sarajevo.
1915.11.25 Germany General theory of relativity presented by Albert Einstein, explaining shift of orbit of the Mercury and predicting the refraction of star light by mass of the sun.
1917.5.25 Germany Bombing of Forkston, the first strategic bombing.
1917 United Kingdom Emergence of isotope of oxygen atom and hydrogen nucleus by alpha-ray irradiation of nitrogen atom, by E.Rutherford.
1917.11.7 Russia October Revolution.
1918 United Kingdom Mass spectroscopy developed by Francis William Aston, making it possible to detect all isotopes. (Received 1922 Nobel prize.)
1918.10 Hungary Revolution.
1919.5.29 United Kingdom Detection of refraction of light of stars due to mass of the sun by Arthur Stanley Eddington at a total eclipse of the sun in west Africa.
1920 United Kingdom Proton proposed by E.Rutherford.
1920.6.3 United Kingdom Isotope of hydrogen and neutron, a possible intrusion of neutron into nucleus, proposed by E.Rutherford.
1922.12 Denmark Hafnium, the 72nd element, discovered by Georgede Hevesy and D.Coster. (CHAFNIA is Copenhagen in ancient Romanian regime.)Its existence was predicted from the periodic table.
1923 U.S.A. Compton effect, or Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Compton. Longer wave length of X-ray scattered by graphite, detected by a spectrometer. A proof of particle nature of light. (Received 1927Nobel prize.)
1923.11.8 Germany Adolf Hitler is sent to Landesberg prison for treason. There, he dictates his autobiography Mein Kampf.
1924 France Wave nature of electron proposed by Louis de Broglie.(Received 1929 Nobel prize.)
1925 Germany Theory of quantum mechanics founded by Werner Karl Heizenberg at the N.Bohr Institute, in Copenhagen, Denmark. (Received 1932Nobel prize.)
1926 Austria Theory of wave mechanics developed by Erwin Schroedinger.(Received 1933 Nobel prize.)
1927. 2 Germany Uncertainty principle proposed by E. Heisenberg. The idea that light is not only wave but also particle emerged during a walk in a park under a starlit sky .
1927 United Kingdom, U.S.A. Wave nature of electron;Confirmation by George Paget Thomson and Clinton Joseph Davisson. (Received 1937 Nobel prize.)
1928 U.S.A. Positron; Prediction by Paul Adrian Maurice Dirac. Incorporation of relativity to Schroedinger equation (spin of electron). (Received 1933Nobel prize.)
1929. 4 U.S.A. Idea of Cyclotron for accelerating sub-atomic particles occurred to Ernest Orlando Lawrence and M.S.Livingston.

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