||Pentagon admits mistaken nuclear arms shipment. Shipping by mistake electrical
fuses for an intercontinental ballistic missile to Taiwan.Four of the cone-shaped
fuses were shipped to Taiwanese officials in fall 2006 instead of the helicopter
batteries they had ordered.
||U.S. government sources say that Israel's decision to attack Syria on Sept.
6, bombing a suspected nuclear site set up in apparent collaboration with
North Korea, came after Israel shared intelligence with President Bush
this summer indicating that North Korean nuclear personnel were in Syria.
||Earthquake in Sichuan province, nuclear sites damaged. Two nuclear fuel
production sites and two atomic weapons sites, between 40 and 90 miles
from the epicentre.
||Fire onboard nuclear powered Nimitz class US Aircraft Carrier USS George
Washington (CVN 73). Fire was detected in the morning near aft air conditioning
and refrigeration space and auxiliary boiler room, spread to more places
through electrical cable way. Ships crew as a team extinguished the fire
after several hours of fire fighting. 23 crew members were treated for
heat stress and one crew was treated for first degree burns.
||Blueprints for a sophisticated nuclear bomb may have been passed in recent
years to Iran or North Korea ? or even to terrorist groups. The bomb blueprints
were discovered in 2006, but their existence has only now been made public.
They were found on computers belonging to three Swiss businessmen under
investigation for their ties to the smuggling ring directed by Khan, who
is under house arrest for having sold nuclear secrets to Libya and other
||Destroys cooling tower at nuclear plant. Almost simultaneously, President
George W. Bush announced that Washington was removing North Korea from
the U.S. list of state sponsors of terrorism, and issued a proclamation
lifting some sanctions under the Trading with the Enemy Act.
|2008. 7. 8
||An accidental spillage of waste containing uranium occured at one of France's
top nuclear plants. Some 30 cubic metres (over 1,000 cubic feet) of effluents
containing 12 grammes (easily less than half an ounce) of uranium per litre
spilled out at the Tricastin Nuclear Power Centre in Bollene in southern
|2008. 7. 9
||Nine missiles had been fired in total, including a new Shahab-3, with a
range of 2,000km (1,240 miles).
||The International Commission on Nuclear Non-proliferation and Disarmament,
a joint initiative of the Australian and Japanese Governments. It aims
to reinvigorate international efforts on nuclear non-proliferation and
disarmament, in the context of both the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation
Treaty Review Conference, and beyond. Prime Minister Rudd and Japanese
Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda agreed to establish the Commission.
||Possible Nuclear Leak by U.S. Submarine. Japan's Foreign Ministry said
in a statement that it was informed by the U.S. Navy that a small amount
of radiation might have leaked from the nuclear-powered USS Houston as
it traveled around the Pacific.
||Another "Incident" at French Nuclear Plant. A security incident
has occurred at a French nuclear site already under scrutiny due to other
scares this summer. Two fuel units became snagged in a reactor at Tricastin
in southern France when site workers were removing them for maintenance.
The reactor building was evacuated.
||Remark by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad that Iran possesses more
than 5,000 centrifuges, which can produce nuclear material suitable for
a power plant or, if highly enriched, an atomic bomb.
||Democratic Party Platform on Nuke and Nonproliferation Issues, approved.
Preventing the Spread and Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction: A World Without
Nuclear Weapons:America will seek a world with no nuclear weapons and take
concrete actions to move in this direction. We face the growing threat
of terrorists acquiring nuclear weapons or the materials to make them,
as more countries seek nuclear weapons and nuclear materials remain unsecured
in too many places. We will maintain a strong and reliable deterrent as
long as nuclear weapons exist, but America will be safer in a world that
is reducing reliance on nuclear weapons and ultimately eliminates all of
them. We will make the goal of eliminating nuclear weapons worldwide a
central element of U.S. nuclear weapons policy.
Secure Nuclear Weapons and the Materials to Make Them:We will work with
other nations to secure, eliminate, and stop the spread of nuclear weapons
and materials to dramatically reduce the dangers to our nation and the
world. We will convene a summit in and regularly thereafter) of leaders
of Permanent Members of the U.N. Security Council and other key countries
to agree on implementing many of these measures on a global basis.
End the Production of Fissile Material:We will negotiate a verifiable global
ban on the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons and work
to strengthen the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
End Cold War Nuclear Postures:We will work with Russia to take as many
weapons as possible off Cold War, quick-launch status, and extend key provisions
of the START Treaty, including its essential monitoring and verification
requirements. We will not develop new nuclear weapons, and will work to
create a bipartisan consensus to support ratification of the Comprehensive
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which will strengthen the NPT and aid international
monitoring of nuclear activities.
|2008. 9. 6
||Approving by 45 members of The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) to carry out
nuclear commerce, ending 34 years of isolation of India.
||U.S. nuclear aircraft carrier George Washington deployed in Yokosuka, 50
miles from metropolitan area of Tokyo.
||Launches 3-man crew into space China. Carries out first space walk.
||Signed a agreement for civil nuclear cooperation with France. With this
pact, France became the first country to enter into a formal understanding
with India after the Nuclear Suppliers Group exempted India from its guidelines
earlier this month.
||US-India Nuclear treaty. The U.S. Senate ratified the deal 86 to 13 a week
after the House passed it on 10.2.
||US removes North Korea from terrorism blacklist.@
||China-Pakistan nuclear power plant deal. China to provide help to build
two new nuclear power plants.
||Satellite orbiting Moon unmanned.
||Barack Obama wins presidential election,pledging to move toward a nuclear
||Accident on a Russian nuclear submarine. At least 20 people died in when
a fire extinguishing system was activated by mistake.The dead are reported
to be six sailors and 14 civilians.
||Tests of new anti-ship missile in Gulf of Oman.
||Resolution, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, adopted by the General
175 in favour to 1 against(United States), 3 abstentions(India, Mauritius,
Syria),and 14 absents (Angola, Central African Republic, Comoros, Democratic
Peoplefs Republic of Korea, Gambia, Haiti, Kiribati, Saint Kitts and Nevis,
Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Tuvalu).
||India-Russia nuclear deal signed.
||Defense Minister Liang Guanglie, China's intention to build aircraft carriers.Reports
state that two 50,000-60,000 ton aircraft carriers are due to be finished
||Two British and French nuclear submarines collision in heavy seas in the
Atlantic. Each carries 16 M45 ballistic missiles, weighs 35 tons each,
carries six warheads and has a range of around 5,000 miles.
||The first test of nuclear power plant. Tests were carried out at the Bushehr
nuclear power plant using "dummy" fuel rods, loaded with lead
in place of enriched uranium to simulate nuclear fuel.
||Russia and U.S.A. set out demands for a comprehensive new nuclear weapons
agreement to replace the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (Start I) of 1991.
On June 6 President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitri Medvedev
began talks toward reducing their nuclear arsenals by nearly a third.
||FRANCE: The French government to compensate victims of nuclear tests for
the first time. A draft bill to be submitted to parliament. On December
.23 French lawmakers approved legislation to compensate victims of atomic
tests carried out over almost 40 years in the Algerian Sahara and French
|2009. 4. 6
||Llaunching the rocket at 11:30 a.m. local time, or 10:30 p.m. Eastern Daylight
Time. Early reports from the Japanese prime ministerfs office indicated
that the three-stage rocket appeared to launch successfully, with the first
stage falling into the Sea of Japan and the second stage into the Pacific.
South Korea vowed a gstern and resoluteh response to the Northfs greckless
act.h North Korean officials confirmed on February 24 that their country
is making preparations to launch a communications satellite, a move that
would also constitute a new test of North Korean missile capabilities.
|2009. 4. 6
||Obama's speach of the nuclear weapons-free world. He told a crowd of tens
of thousands gathered in morning sunshine in Prague that America, as the
sole country ever to fire a nuclear weapon in anger, bore the moral responsibility
for launching a new era of nuclear disarmament aimed at eliminating nuclear
stockpiles. His presidency, Obama declared, would see "America's commitment
to seek the peace and security of a world without nuclear weapons".Obama
said he would downgrade the role ascribed to nuclear weapons in the US's
national security doctrines. He pledged he would press the US Senate "immediately
and aggressively" to ratify the comprehensive test ban treaty never
fully endorsed by the Americans. "It is time for the testing of nuclear
weapons to be banned," said the president.
||The Security Council condemnation for North Korea's missile tests. It said
it will punish them with tougher sanctions.Although all 15 council members
agreed, the statement was a weaker response than Japan and the US wanted
- Russia and China opposed their attempt to go tougher on the communist
||Withdrawal from six-party talks, in response to UN condemnation of its
launch of a rocket on April 5. The U.S. State Department confirmed that
its inspection team, completely separate from the IAEA mission, had also
been told to leave.International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors,
who monitored the disablement of a nuclear facility in North Korea, have
left the site with surveillance cameras switched off on Pyongyang's demand.
||European Parliament approves with a majority of 177 votes against 130 an
amendment introducing the "Model Nuclear Weapons Convention"
and the "Hiroshima-Nagasaki Protocol" as concrete tools to achieve
a nuclear weapons free world by 2020.
|2009. 5. 6
||Recommendation by The third PrepCom for the 2010 NPT Review Conference.
Reaffirm the commitments of States parties under Article VI relating the
||New national security strategy, an updated version of its 1997 policy,
outlines major threats to the country's national security and defines its
national interests. The strategy paper, "a comprehensive and fundamental
document" intended to last until 2020, was approved by President Dmitry
Medvedev on Tuesday and released by the Kremlin on Wednesday. the United
States' plan to deploy a missile defense system in Central Europe has remarkably
reduced the possibility of safeguarding the global and regional stability.
Therefore, Russia will pursue a "rational and pragmatic" foreign
policy, avoiding costly confrontation and a new arms race, the document
said. Russia will actively participate in multilateral cooperation and
make its cooperation with Commonwealth of Independent States members a
priority, the paper said.
||The second nuclear test. North Korea insists it has a right to nuclear
weapons, it has staged a "successful" underground nuclear test.The
state says it was more powerful than the previous one in October 2006.
The North Korea gave no details of the test location, but South Korean
officials said that a seismic tremor was detected in the north-eastern
part around the town of Kilju - the site of North Korea's first nuclear
test. The US Geological Survey said a 4.7-magnitude quake was detected
at 0054 GMT, 10km (six miles) underground.
||Says it will start enriching uranium. A few hours after the U.N. Security
Council slapped it with tough new sanctions for detonating a second nuclear
device, the government of Kim Jong Il changed its tune, vowing that it
would start enriching uranium to make more nuclear weapons. Declaring that
it would meet sanctions with "retaliation," North Korea also
pledged to "weaponize" all the plutonium it could extract from
used fuel rods at its Yongbyon nuclear plant, which was partially disabled
last year as part of the North's agreement to win food, fuel and diplomatic
concessions in return for a promise to end its nuclear program.
||Japan's Yukiya Amano chosen as the next head. He touched on the devastation
U.S. atom bombs wreaked on his country in pledging to do his utmost to
prevent the spread of nuclear arms.The decision by the 35-nation International
Atomic Energy Agency board ended a tug of war on who should succeed Nobel
Peace laureate Mohamed ElBaradei, who saw his agency vaulted into prominence
during a high-profile 12-year tenure.
|2009. 7. 6
||The US and Russia agreement to work towards cutting deployed nuclear warheads
to as few as 1,500 each.U.S.A President Obama and the Russian prime minister,
Dmitry Medvedev, signed a framework deal aimed at cutting warheads to a
maximum of 1,675 within seven years of a nuclear arms reduction treaty
coming into force. Current treaties allow for a maximum of 2,200 warheads,
though both sides are thought to have more than that deployed, or capable
of launch. According to some expert estimates of current numbers, the new
commitment would mean each side scrapping almost 1,000 warheads. The pact
signed also calls for the number of strategic delivery systems to be reduced
to between 500 and 1,100 on each side, from 1,600 under current treaties.
Such systems include intercontinental ballistic missiles, submarine-launched
missiles and heavy bombers.
||US withdrawal of Central Europe Missile Defense Shield. The Obama administration
quietly announced it.
||UN security council votes unanimously for a resolution on disarmament and
non-proliferation. The summit in New York represented the first time the
security council had met to focus on the elimination of nuclear weapons.
Barack Obama, who at the same time became the first US president to chair
a council session, described the resolution as "historic", saying
it "enshrines our shared commitment to the goal of a world without
nuclear weapons". The resolution calls for states with nuclear weapons
to continue disarming, to ratify a ban on testing them and to agree a treaty
stopping the production of fissile material. In return, non weapons states
should accept stronger safeguards designed to stop the spread of nuclear
weapons.The resolution, however, is non-binding, and there are many obstacles
to its aspirations becoming reality.
||British Prime Minister Gordon Brown signales at the U.N. General Assembly
that he is prepared to scale back the country's Trident submarine nuclear
deterrent as part of a "global bargain" to reduce the world's
||Conference on Facilitating the Entry Into Force of the CTBT ). U.S.A. joined.
||Iran admits secret uranium enrichment plant, sending. a letter to Mohamed
ElBaradei, the head of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), saying
it had established a second pilot uranium enrichment plant, parallel to
the one monitored by the IAEA in Natanz. November 30 Iran authorizes 10
new uranium plants
||Reports of discovery of kilos of plutonium at a plant in Cadarache in the
south of France which was closed in 2003. The discovery has brought to
a halt the dismantling of the plant and raised questions over when the
discovery was made.The plant at Cadarache produced MOX for nuclear reactors.
It was shut down in 2003 and was in the process of being dismantled since
March this year.
||Agreement of the new German CDU (Christian Democrat) and FDP (Liberals)
coalition on a policy of withdrawal of US nuclear weapons from Germany.
||U.N. General Assembly's adoption of a Japan-initiated resolution on abolishing
nuclear arms that the United States joined as one of the proposing nations
for the first time. Similar resolutions have been passed annually for the
past 16 years, and this year was the first time in nine years for the United
States to declare its support. While North Korea and India voted against,
and eight other countries including China, France and Iran abstained, the
resolution passed the assembly with 171 votes.
||Expiration of Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START-1) signed by the United
States and the Soviet Union on July 31, 1991, five months before the U.S.S.R.
||Barack Obama's Nobel Prize Acceptance. "Still, we are at war, and
I am responsible for the deployment of thousands of young Americans to
battle in a distant land. Some will kill. Some will be killed.War, in one
form or another, appeared with the first man." " At the dawn
of history, its morality was not questioned; it was simply a fact, like
drought or disease - the manner in which tribes and then civilizations
sought power and settled their differences. Over time, as codes of law
sought to control violence within groups, so did philosophers, clerics,
and statesmen seek to regulate the destructive power of war." "
The concept of a "just war" emerged, suggesting that war is justified
only when it meets certain preconditions: if it is waged as a last resort
or in self-defense; if the forced used is proportional, and if, whenever
possible, civilians are spared from violence. So part of our challenge
is reconciling these two seemingly irreconcilable truths - that war is
sometimes necessary, and war is at some level an expression of human feelings."
||Enriching(20%) uranium suggested.
|2010. 2. 5
||New Strategy Doctrine employing nuclear weapons, approved.
||A new nuclear power plant in Burke County, Georgia to be built. Announced
by President Obama.
||Five NATO states, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Norway and Luxembourg
plan to call for the removal of all remaining US nuclear weapons on European
soil in a move intended to spur global disarmament, Belgium officials said.
||New START agreement, each 1550 nuclear heads, 800 vehicles.
|2010. 4. 6
||No nuclear use against non-nuclear states complying NPT, declared by President
|2010. 4. 8
||New START signed in Plague. Presidents Obama and Medvedev.
||Nuclear Summit, Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Belgium, Brazil,
Canada, Chile, China, the Czech Republic, Egypt, Finland, France, Georgia,
Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Malaysia,
Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines,
Poland, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Singapore,
Switzerland, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, United Arab
Emirates, the United Kingdom, Ukraine and Vietnam. 1.Reaffirm the fundamental
responsibility of States, consistent with their respective international
obligations.2.Call on States to work cooperatively as an international
community to advance nuclear security.3.Recognize that highly enriched
uranium and separated plutonium require special precautions.4.Endeavor
to fully implement all existing nuclear security commitments and work toward
acceding to those not yet joined.5.Support the objectives of international
nuclear security instruments.6.Reaffirm the essential role of the International
Atomic Energy Agency in the international nuclear security framework.7.Recognize
the role and contributions of the United Nations.8.Acknowledge the need
for capacity building for nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral,
regional and multilateral levels.9.Recognize the need for cooperation among
States to effectively prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear
trafficking.10.Recognize the continuing role of nuclear industry in nuclear
security.11.Support the implementation of strong nuclear security practices.12.Recognize
that measures contributing to nuclear material security have value.
||ICRC President Jakob Kellenberger appeals to States to bring nuclear weapons
to an end.
||NPT Review Conference. Final Document referring to Nuclear Convention,
|2010. 5. 3
||Obama administration reveals the size of the American nuclear arsenal --
5,113, statement by Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton.
||Security Council imposes additional sanctions on Iran, voting 12 in favor
to 2 against, with 1 abstention.
||Japan, India to start treaty talks for nuclear sales, though India is not
a NPT state.
||10 Russian spies arrested in U.S. They were asked to learn about a wide
range of topics, including nuclear weapons, U.S. arms control positions.
7.8. Exchanging with US spies arrested in Russia
|2010. 8. 1
||Bikini Atoll in the Pacific joins UNESCO`s world heritage list.
|2010. 8. 6
||U.S. ambassador attends Hiroshima A-Bomb Ceremony.
||Iran begins fuelling first Bushehr Nuclear Plant in the presence of International
Atomic Energy Agency inspector.
|2010. 9. 2
||Two Chinese satellites rendezvous in orbit, reported.
||Conducts the subcritical test dubbed Bacchus, the 24th subcritical nuclear
experiment 4 years after previous one.
||Convention on the prohibition of the use of nuclear weapons. The First
Committee approved the draft by a recorded vote of 107 in favor to 48 against,
with 11 abstentions.
||Resolution towards a nuclear-weapon-free world. The first committee approved
the draft resolution as a whole by a vote of 154 in favor to 1 against
(D.P.R.K.), with 13 abstentions.
||Agreement of joint nuclear weapons tests.
||The total UK nuclear weapon stockpile is being reduced to no more than
180, in speech by Former Defense Secretary.
||Construction of a nuclear power reactor suggested. A 25-or 30-megawatt
||A new uranium-enrichment facility. D.P.R.K. officials said the facility
is operating and producing low-enriched uranium, in report posted by Stanford
University professor Siegfried S. Hecker of his November 12 visit to the
Yongbyon, D.P.R.K., facility.
||North and South Korea exchanged artillery fire after the North shelled
an island Yeonpyeong near their disputed sea border, killing at least two
South Korean marines, setting dozens of buildings ablaze and sending civilians
fleeing for shelter.
||Tehran claims yellow cake breakthrough, it had mastered the uranium-mining
process to become "self sufficient" in creating nuclear fuel.
||Ready to readmit IAEA inspectors, regime officials made the offer to Bill
Richardson, New Mexico governor and former U.S. ambassador to the United
Nations, during his unofficial visit to Pyongyang.
||New Start ratified, in favor 71, against 26.
||New Start ratified, State Duma.350 deputies in favor, 96 against, and one
||New Start goes into force. Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov and U.S.
Secretary of State Hillary Clinton exchanged the instruments of ratification
at the Security Conference in Munich, Germany,
Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster
|The 9.0 MW Tohoku earthquake, at 14:46 JST with epicenter near the island
of Honshu. The maximum ground accelerations of 0.56, 0.52, 0.56 g (5.50,
5.07 and 5.48 m/s2) at Units 2, 3 and 5,respectively of Fukushima I and
II Nuclear Plant (The Nuclear Power Plants consist of six light water,
boiling water reactors (BWR) designed by General Electric driving electrical
generators with a combined power of 4.7 giga watts. Fukushima I was the
first GE designed nuclear plant to be constructed and run entirely by the
Tokyo Electric Power Company, TEPCO).
Units 1, 2 and 3, automatic shutdown (called SCRAM).A 13?15 m (43?49 ft)
maximum height tsunami, approximately 50 minutes later topped the plant's
5.7 m (19 ft) seawall, flooding the basement of the Turbine Buildings and
disabling the emergency diesel generators. All generated electrical power,
lost at 15:37 following the tsunami. The core spray system was disabled
with AC power loss at 15:37 and the HPCI(High Pressure Coolant Injection)
system failed following DC power loss. Electricity was needed for both
the cooling water pumps and ventilation fans used to drive gases through
heat exchangers within the containment. Rising heat within the containment
area led to increasing pressure.
A nuclear emergency, declared by the government. Later Prime Minister Naoto
Kan issued instructions that people within a 20 km (12 mi) zone around
the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant must leave, and urged that those living
between 20 km and 30 km from the site to stay indoors. The latter groups
were also urged to evacuate on 25 March.
Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster
|With the pressure and temperatures continuing to rise, at 09:15, TEPCO
sent workers to begin manually opening the valves. The high radiation slowed
the work and the valves were not opened until 14:30. At 15:36 JST, an explosion
in the reactor building at Unit 1. The side walls of the upper level were
blown away, leaving in place only the vertical steel framed gridworks.
The roof collapsed, covering the floor and some machinery on the south
side. The cause was a hydrogen explosion. Inside the reactor vessel falling
water levels exposes zircaloy structures/fuel assembly cladding, which
then reacted with steam and produced hydrogen that subsequently vented
into the containment building. At 20:05 JST, the Japanese government ordered
seawater to be injected into Unit 1 in a new effort to cool the reactor
core. The injection of seawater into the reactor pressure vessel was done
by fire trucks of the fire department. The report of the fact-finding commission
states that "There is a possibility that the bottom of the Reactor
Pressure Vessel(RPV) was damaged and some of the fuel might have dropped
and accumulated on the D/W floor (lower pedestal)." The Fukushima
prefectural government reported radiation dose rates at the plant reaching
1.015 mSv/h. The IAEA stated on 13 March that four workers had been injured
by the explosion at the Unit 1 reactor, and that three injuries were reported
in other incidents at the site. They also reported one worker was exposed
to higher-than-normal radiation levels but the level fell below their guidance
for emergency situations.
Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster
|On Unit 3 reactor, at 09:25 JST, operators began injecting water containing
boric acid into the primary containment vessel (PCV) via the pump of a
fire truck. When water levels continued to fall and pressure to rise, the
injected water was switched to seawater at 13:12. By 15:00 it was noted
that despite adding water the level in the reactor did not rise and radiation
Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster
|At 11:15 JST an explosion of the building surrounding Reactor 3, owing
to the ignition of built up hydrogen gas.
Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster
|Unit 2 and 3 reactors, core melt down. An explosion heard at 06:14 JST,
in Unit 2, possibly damaging the pressure-suppression system, which is
at the bottom part of the containment vessel. The radiation level was reported
to exceed the legal limit and the plant's operator started to evacuate
all non-essential workers from the plant. Only a minimum crew of 50 men,
also referred to as the Fukushima 50, was left at the site. Soon after,
radiation equivalent dose rates had risen to 8.2 mSv/h around two hours
after the explosion and again down to 2.4 mSv/h, shortly after. Three hours
after the explosion, the rates had risen to 11.9 mSv/h.
Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster
|A new electrical distribution panel, installed in an office adjacent to
Unit 1 to supply power via Unit 2 when it was reconnected to the transmission
grid two days later. On 21 March, injection of seawater continued, as did
repairs to the control instrumentation. On 23 March, it became possible
to inject water into the reactor using the feed water system rather than
the fire trucks, raising the flow rate from 2 to 18 tons /h, and on 24
March, lighting was restored to the central operating room.
The spent fuel pool was "thought to be fully or partially exposed."
On 18 March, a crew of firemen took over the task with six fire engines
each spraying 6 tons of water in 40 minutes. 30 further hyper rescue vehicles
were involved in spraying operations. Spraying continued each day to 23
March because of concerns the explosion in Unit 3 may have damaged the
pool (total 3,742 tones of water sprayed up to 22 March). By 24 March it
was possible to add 35 tones of seawater to the spent fuel pool using the
cooling and purification system.
Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster
|Freshwater, used to cool the core in stead of sea water. Electrical power
(initially from temporary sources), restored to parts of the Unit. off-site
power, used from 3 April.
Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster
|US Nuclear Emergency Response Marines flied to Japan. Approximately 155
Marines from the Marines' Chemical Biological Incident Response Force (CBIRF).
Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster
|Tokyo Electric Power Co (TEPCO) begins the release of some 11,500 tons
of radioactive water, most likely contaminated in the process of trying
to cool nuclear fuel rods, into the Pacific Ocean from a waste treatment
Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster
|The disaster of Fukushima Daiichi to Level 7 on the INES scale, admitted
by Japanese Government, by considering the whole event and not considering
each reactor as an individual event per se (rated between 3 and 5). This
would make Fukushima the second Level 7 "major accident" in the
history of the nuclear industry; having said that, radiation released as
a result of the events at Fukushima was, as of 12 April, only approximately
10% of that released as a result of the accident at Chernobyl (1986). However,
the largest study, as of 21 October 2011, on Fukushima fallout concludes
that Fukushima was "the largest radioactive noble gas release in history
not related to nuclear bomb testing. The release is a factor of 2.5 higher
than the Chernobyl 133Xe source term." .
||The United States conducted subcritical nuclear tests at a Nevada underground
test site 2010 December and 2011 February, the Energy Department said .
||Germany to shut all nuclear reactors. Prime Minister Angela Merkel committed
to shutting down all of the country's nuclear reactors by 2022.
||Italy not to return to nuclear power any time soon. Italian voters rejected
a referendum proposal by the government of Silvio Berlusconi to restart
the country's moribund nuclear energy program.
||The first direct meeting with North Korea in New York on nuclear issues
||A blast at the Marcoule nuclear site. One person killed and four injured,
one seriously. French national electricity provider EDF said it had been
"an industrial accident, not a nuclear accident".
||Resolution sponcered by NAC (Brazil, Egypt, Ireland, Mexico, New Zealand,
South Africa and Sweden) for the Convention on the prohibition of the use
of nuclear weapons. The First Committee approved the draft by a recorded
vote of 118 in favor to 7 against, with 39 abstentions( including Japan).
Resolution towards a nuclear-weapon-free world sponsored by Japan . The
first committee approved (9.22)the draft resolution by a vote of 154 in
favor to 1 against (D.P.R.K.), with 13 abstentions.
Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster
|Fukushima is in cold shutdown, says Japanese prime minister. The plant
still leaks radiation into the sea. Its makeshift cooling system is vulnerable
to earthquakes. And the cleanup work remains dangerous, with many flooded
and debris-strewn areas of the reactor buildings difficult even for robots
to access. In normal circumstances, a reactor in cold shutdown mode is
entirely stable, its fuel intact, with no chance of a chain reaction. To
achieve its version of a cold shutdown at Fukushima Daiichi, Japan had
to loosen the definition. Fukushima now meets the governmentfs requirements
because temperatures at the bottom of the three damaged reactor pressure
vessels have dropped below 100 degrees Celsius (212 degrees Fahrenheit).
Airborne leaks into the environment have also been almost halted, with
little chance of backsliding.
||Kim Jong-il, the leader who had made North Korea a nuclear weapon state
Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster
|A report by a government-appointed investigative panel.
Tokyo Electric Power (Tepco), the company which operated the plant, did
not "take precautionary measures in anticipation that a severe accident
could be caused by (a) tsunami such as the one (that) hit.. Neither did
the regulatory authorities." Delays in relaying information to the
public managers' lack of knowledge of procedures to deal with emergencies
poor communications - between the workers and the government, among the
workers themselves, and between government bodies. Tepco staffs at the
plant were not trained to handle emergencies like the power shutdown that
struck when the tsunami destroyed back-up generators.
||Agrees to stop nuclear tests, uranium enrichment and long-range missile
launches, and to allow checks by IAEA nuclear inspectors, in an apparent
policy shift that paves the way for resuming long-stalled disarmament talks.
||President Obama speaks at 2012 Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul. He stood
by his pledge for a world without nuclear weapons, declaring flatly that
the United States has more than it needs and could decrease its arsenal
without threatening national security. At the tail end of his 90 minute
meeting with Russian President Dmitri Medvedev Monday, President Obama
said that he would have ?more flexibility? to deal with controversial issues
such as missile defense, but incoming Russian President Vladimir Putin
needs to give him ?space.?
||Long-range rocket launch fails after one minute.
||Resolution sponsored by Malaysia and others for the Convention on the prohibition
of the use of nuclear weapons approved by a vote of 135 in favor to 22
against, with 26 abstentions. Resolution towards a nuclear-weapon-free
world sponsored by Japan approved by a vote of 174 in favor 1 against (D.P.R.K.),
with 13 abstentions (including China, India, Iran, Israel and Pakistan).
||A sub-critical test of the properties of plutonium of nuclear head, conducted
underground. 4th test by Obama administration.
||Renewed long range rocket (missile) launched.
||Underground nuclear test, near the site of previous nuclear tests at Mantapsan
in Kilju County. Third in 7 years.The Korea Institute of Geosciences and
Mineral Resources estimated the yield as 7.7?7.8 kilotons.
||Security Council,including China, condemnes the DPRK's third nuclear test.
Furthermore it increased the power of other nations to enforce these sanctions.
||Conference: Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear weapons, Oslo.Delegates from
127 countries as well as several UN organisations, the International Red
Cross movement, representatives of civil society and other relevant stakeholders
participated, agreed that an understanding of the global humanitarian consequences
of nuclear detonations should be the starting point for urgent action to
ban nuclear weapons.
||The Preparatory Committee for the 2015 Review Conference of the Parties
to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, in Geneva.79
States sign Joint Statement on Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons.Algeria,
Argentina, Austria, Belarus, Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana,
Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, C?te dfIvoire,
Cyprus, Cuba, Denmark, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia,
Ghana, Georgia, Grenada, Guatemala, Holy See, Honduras, Iceland, Indonesia,
Iran, Ireland, Jamaica, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lebanon, Lesotho,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico,
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,
Norway, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar,
Serbia, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tanzania,
Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay,
Yemen, Zambia and South Africa.
||Department of Defence Releases Report on U.S. Nuclear Employment Strategy
The Nuclear Posture Review Implementation Study (NPRIS) contends that the
United States can safely reduce the number of strategic nuclear weapons
by up to one-third below the current levels. Further, the NPRIS states
that the U.S. may do this unilaterally, but prefers to reduce through a
negotiated agreement with Russia.
||U.S. Conducted a Plutonium Z-Machine Shot at New Mexico Government Nuclear
Lab Between April 1 and June 30 This Year, just released by the NNSA
||U.S. and Iran Agree to Speed Talks to Defuse Nuclear Issue. In a hurriedly
arranged telephone call, Mr. Obama reached Mr. Rouhani as the Iranian leader
was headed to the airport to leave New York after a whirlwind news media
and diplomatic blitz. The two agreed to accelerate talks aimed at defusing
the dispute over Iranfs nuclear program and afterward expressed optimism
at the prospect of a rapprochement that would transform the Middle East.
gResolving this issue, obviously, could also serve as a major step forward
in a new relationship between the United States and the Islamic Republic
of Iran, one based on mutual interests and mutual respect,h Mr. Obama,
referring to Tehranfs nuclear program, told reporters at the White House
after the 15- minute phone call. gIt would also help facilitate a better
relationship between Iran and the international community, as well as others
in the region.h
||The joint statement against use of nuclear weapons, compiled through the
initiative of 16 nations, including New Zealand and Switzerland, approved
in the General Assembly First Committee by a total of 125 nations, including
Japan which supports first time.
||The Second Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons, held
in Nayarit,146 states attended. The numbers of states endorsing the framework
of Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons includes more than
two thirds of the NPT state parties.
||The Japanese government confirmed it will ship hundreds pounds of highly
enriched nuclear explosive materials back to the United States,expecting
public pledge came in a joint statement with Washington that was timed
to coincide with the first day of a U.S.-led, international Nuclear Security
Summit on March 24-25 in the Netherlands.The plutonium alone is 3.5 percent
of what Japan has in its own warehouses, and less than one percent of the
countryfs total holdings (some of it is stored outside the country).
||Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Initiative composed of Australia, Canada,
Chile, Germany, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Nigeria, the Philippines, Poland,
Turkey and the United Arab Emirates, 8th Ministerial Meeting in Hiroshima.
Disrepancey between U.S (oberver) and 12 menber states, revealed.
||The 2013 Preparatory Committee meeting for the 2015 NPT Review Conference
in Geneva. Failed to reach agreement of document declaring that any use
or threat of use of nuclear weapons would be inconsistent with fundamental
rules of international humanitarian law.
||Japan had about 47.1 tons of plutonium in and outside the country at the
end of 2013, about 2.9 tons more than the year before.
||Iran-U.S. and Allies
||A yearlong effort to reach an enduring accord with Iran to dismantle large
parts of its nuclear infrastructure fell short in Vienna, forcing the United
States and its allies to declare a seven-month extension.
||Resolution towards a nuclear-weapon-free world sponsored by Japan, U.S.A
and others approved by a vote of 170 in favor 1 against (D.P.R.K.), with
14 abstentions including China, Russia.
||The Third Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons, held
in Vienna by 158 states and NGO's.The majority of delegations underscored
that the final elimination of nuclear weapons should be pursued within
an agreed legal framework, including a nuclear weapons convention.
||Japan's State Secrets Law takes effect. The fundamental principles of autonomy,
democracy and openness incorporated into the Atomic Energy Basic Law is
essentially became ineffective. Thus, Japan obtains its own gnuclear deterrence.h
||President Vladimir Putin has said he was ready to put Russia's nuclear
weapons on standby during tensions over the crisis in Ukraine and Crimea.
||Iran,France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States plus Germany), and the
||Negotiations for a framework deal over the nuclear program of Iran took
place between the foreign ministers of the countries at a series of meetings
held from 26 March to 2 April 2015 in Lausanne, Switzerland.Iran's enrichment
capacity, enrichment level and stockpile will be limited for specified
durations. There will be no enrichment facilities other than Natanz.When
the IAEA verifies Iran's implementation of its key nuclear commitments:
The EU will terminate all nuclear-related economic sanctions. The United
States will cease the application of all nuclear-related secondary economic
and financial sanctions.
||A four week U.N. conference to improve compliance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation
Treaty (NPT) ended Friday even without adopting a final document. The participants
were unable to overcome differences over a call for a regional conference
on banning weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East. The proposed
gathering would not discuss regional security issues. The proposal, made
by Egypt and other Arab countries, was clearly aimed at the nuclear weapons
that Israel allegedly possesses. The call was unacceptable to Israel, which
is not a party to the NPT but attended the conference as an observer for
the first time in 20 years, and to the U.S. Britain and Canada joined them
||China's disarmament ambassador blasted Japan on Oct. 20 at a U.N. committee
meeting for its growing stockpile of plutonium, arguing that it could create
hundreds of nuclear warheads.
||Resolution towards a nuclear-weapon-free world sponsored by Japan, and
others approved by a vote f 156 in favor(170 in 2014)1 3 against (D.P.R.K.,Russia
and Cina), with abstentions including U.S.A., France,G.B.
||Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and his Indian counterpart Narendra Modi agreed
in principle on a civil nuclear cooperation pact that would pave the way
for export of Japanfs nuclear power plant technology to India. Japan has
so far refrained from signing a civil nuclear cooperation pact with countries
that are outside the NPT regime. Such an agreement with India, a de facto
nuclear weapons power, is tantamount to Tokyo accepting possession of nuclear
weapons by a country that is not a party to the NPT, representing a major
shift in Japanfs nuclear policy.
||Conducts its fourth nuclear detonation at 10:00:01 UTC+08:30. At the Punggye-ri Nuclear Test Site, approximately 50 kilometres (30 miles) northwest of Kilju City in Kilju County, an underground nuclear test was carried out. The United States Geological Survey reported a 5.1 magnitude earthquake from the location; the China Earthquake Networks Center reported the magnitude as 4.9.
||Sanctions against Iran lifted after compliance with nuclear deal.
|The G7 meeting held in Hiroshima marks a major diplomatic accomplishment for Japan. In addition to their Joint Communique, appropriate to the location of the meeting, the G7 foreign ministers adopted the Hiroshima Declaration on Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament following the meeting.
||U.S. President Barack Obama, pays moving tribute to atomic bombing victims, reaffirmed the U.S.-Japan security alliance and friendship between both nations and called for the elimination of nuclear weapons in a historic and emotional visit to Hiroshima.
|| A U.N. working group on nuclear disarmament adopts
a report recommending to the General Assembly that negotiations to outlaw nuclear weapons begin in 2017.The document was endorsed with 68 nations in favor and 22 objecting. Japan, Switzerland and 11 other countries abstained from voting.
|| A nuclear detonation, the fifth since 2006, at the Punggye-ri Nuclear Test Site, approximately 50 kilometres (30 miles) northwest of Kilju City in Kilju County.According to South Korean and Japanese estimates, the nuclear yield was equivalent to about 10 kilotons of TNT (10 kt), generating about a 5.3 magnitude seismic shock. This would make the explosion the largest North Korean nuclear test.
||Withdraw by President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia from a landmark nuclear security agreement.The treaty, on the disposal of plutonium, the material used in some nuclear weapons, was concluded in 2000 as one of the framework disarmament deals of the early post-Cold War period.
||The First Committee of the United Nations General Assembly adopts a resolution establishing a mandate for negotiating a treaty to convene in 2017 a United Nations conference to negotiate a legally binding instrument to prohibit nuclear weapons, leading towards their total elimination. The negotiations are scheduled to take place in New York in March, June and July 2017.The vote was 123-38, with 16 abstentions, on the resolution put forward by Mexico, Austria, Brazil, Ireland, Nigeria, and South Africa. The full General Assembly is expected to approve the measure by year-end.The resolution passed despite aggressive lobbying by nuclear-armed powers France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, which have said they will not participate in such treaty negotiations. As a group, however, the worldfs nine nuclear-armed nations were divided on the resolution.